Rim brake or disc brake
It depends on what type of brake your bike running. Rim brake wheels will be lighter and rim brake calipers are easier for maintenance, but rim brake wheels will wear the rim surface of the brake track, and the braking performance of the rim brake will be worse in the wet conditions. Disc wheels will be slightly heavier, but the braking performance in the wet condition will be better, also because the disc rotors are removable, and the disc brake only wears the disc rotors, so the disc brake wheels can last longer.
Normally rim brake wheels are using quick release skewers to secure the wheels in place, and the skewers come with the wheels when you buy a new wheelset. Disc brake wheels usually use the 12mm thru-axles to keep them in place, and the thru-axles usually come with the framesets, not the wheels.
Here is another thing about disc brake wheels: there are two different ways to mount the rotors: six bolts or center-lock. The center-lock rotors are usually made by Shimano, and most of the other brands are using the six bolts standard. The six bolts rotors need to tighten the six little bolts in order while the center-lock rotor only need you to tighten a single center lock ring. So the center-lock rotors are easier to remove. The mainly difference is between the hubs, but you can use an adaptor to convert the center-lock hub to a six bolts type if you want to use the six bolts rotors on the center-lock hubs.
Alloy rims are cheaper and more durable but they are way more heavier than the carbon rims, carbon rims are lighter and more aero but more expensive than the alloy rims. But as the carbon fiber manufacture technologies developing, there are lots of cheap carbon rims coming out these days, and the manufacturers are able to making deeper carbon rims without adding too much weight. So more and more people are considering carbon wheelsets as their first road bike wheelset now.
Types of tires
Tubular is a type of tire that got the inner tube sewn inside, and it needs to be glued on the rims. Tubular rims are lighter because you don’t need hook to hold the tire beads, so some weight weenies will choose the tubular if they want to build a super lightweight bike. The tubular tires was popular in the old days, and they are still being used for track racing and some of the world tour pro cyclists. But the tubular tires is getting replaced by clincher and tubeless tires nowadays, because it is really hard to fix the tubulars when you get a puncher and the performance gap between tubular and tubeless is getting smaller and smaller.
Tubeless tires are getting more and more popular these days, tubeless tires are using sealant to prevent it from punchers, which means you no longer need the inner tubes. But if the sealant cannot seal the damage on the tire, you still can put an inner tube inside it to finish the ride. Also the rolling resistance of the tubeless tires are lower, and the road feeling is better. So more and more people go for the tubeless tires now.
Clinchers need to be fitted on a hooked rim and you need to put an inner tube inside it. The advantage of this kind of system is that it is easy to install and you can replace the inner tubes easily if you got a puncher. Clincher tires used to he heavy because the weight of the inner tubes. However, the latest TPU tubes like Pirelli, Tubolito and Ridenow have changed it. Such as Ridenow, their road tube is 36 grams, which means you can save almost 200 grams on the wheels, with the cost of $30 only. This makes the combination of the clincher and tube became lighter than the tubeless and easier to fix (patch) than the tubulars.
Check out the super lightweight Ridenow inner tubes here: https://www.winspace.cc/ride-now-ultralight-innertube-36g.html
The rims are getting wider these days because of the demand of the wider tires. 19mm internal width can fit 25mm tires perfectly, and the 21mm internal width can fit 25/28mm tires better. The benefit of a fatter rim is that you can handle the crosswinds better, and wider external width can make the transition from tires to the rims more smooth.
Currently there are three types of freehub bodies for the road bikes: Campagnolo type, which is compatible with campy 9, 10, 11, 12 speed cassettes with no spacers required. Shimano/Sram 11 speed type, which is compatible with both Shimano and Sram 9, 10, 11 speed cassettes, and also the latest Shimano 12 speed cassette. The XDR freehub is designed to be compatible with Sram 12 speed AXS cassettes, which start with a 10 teeth cog.
Freehub body for Lún wheels: https://www.winspace.cc/freehub-body-for-Lún-wheels.html
99% of bike wheels use steel spokes in the old days, the steel spokes are durable and not so easy to break than other metal materials. And one more reason why people love steel spokes is that they are really cheap.
Carbon spokes used to be very expensive. Big names like Mavic, Corima and Lightweight do have their carbon spoke wheels, but these wheels never get popular because of the price. Until recent 2-3 years, brands like Lún, Hunt and Cadex have launched some great and reasonable priced carbon spoke wheels. Lots of review videos are showed the carbon spokes are lighter, stiffer and more aero than the steel spokes. And some test showed that carbon spokes are not only lighter than the steel spokes, also they are harder to stretch or break when the tension is extremely high. For example, the Lún carbon spoke usually doesn’t break until the tension gets way more beyond 500 kilograms in our own testing machine, while the Sapim Cx-ray spoke gave up before it gets to 300 kilograms.
Which means, the carbon spokes are lighter, stiffer and stronger, and they are definitely not fragile as many people thought. The spokes resemble conventional steel spokes, and can also be trued like steel spokes as the nipples are held in place mechanically, rather than bonded. They are not totally unbreakable but they are easy to replace like steel spokes nowadays. What’s more, every Hyper wheelset will come with a set of carbon spokes which will be one for each size so...no worries!
Check out our latest Lún Hyper wheelsets here: https://www.winspace.cc/wheels/road-wheels/hyper-wheels.html
Hypers are too expensive? Still want to go with the old school type steel spokes? No problem! Check out our Lún Road series here: https://www.winspace.cc/wheels/road-wheels/Lún-road-series.html